Chrome 84 Beta: Web OTP, Web Animations, New Origin Trials and More
Unless otherwise noted, changes described below apply to the newest Chrome beta channel release for Android, Chrome OS, Linux, macOS, and Windows. Learn more about the features listed here through the provided links or from the list on ChromeStatus.com. Chrome 84 is beta as of May 28, 2020.
Web OTP API
The Web OTP API (formerly called the SMS Receiver API) helps users enter an OTP on a web page when a specially-crafted SMS message is delivered to the user’s Android phone.
When verifying the ownership of a phone number, it is typically done by sending a one-time-password (OTP) over SMS which must be manually entered by the user (or copied and pasted). This manual user flow requires directing the user to the native SMS app and back to their web app with the code. With the Web OTP API, developers can help users enter the code with one tap.
For more information, see Verify phone numbers on the web with the Web OTP API.
Animations on the web help users navigate a digital space, help users remember your app or site, and provide implicit hints around how to use your product. Now, developers have greater control over web animations with the Web Animations API.
Although parts of the API have been around for some time, the new implementation in Chrome is a milestone in its development. In addition to greater spec compliance, Chrome now supports compositing operations, which control how effects are combined and offers many new hooks which enable replaceable events. Additionally, the API now supports Promises, which allow for animation sequencing and for greater control over how animations interact with other app features.
For more information and instructions for using web animations, see Web Animations API improvements in Chromium 84.
This version of Chrome introduces the origin trials described below. Origin trials allow you to try new features and give feedback on usability, practicality, and effectiveness to the web standards community. To register for any of the origin trials currently supported in Chrome, including the ones described below, visit the Origin Trials dashboard. To learn more about origin trials themselves, visit the Origin Trials Guide for Web Developers.
New Origin Trials
Cookie Store API
The Cookie Store API exposes HTTP cookies to service workers and offers an asynchronous alternative to document.cookie.
The Idle Detection API notifies developers when a user is idle, indicating such things as lack of interaction with the keyboard, mouse, screen, activation of a screensaver, locking of the screen, or moving to a different screen. A developer-defined threshold triggers the notification. For more information, see Detect inactive users with the Idle Detection API.
Origin isolation allows web developers to opt in to giving up certain cross-origin same-site access capabilities—namely synchronous scripting via document.domain, and calling
WebAssembly.Module instances. This gives the browser more flexibility in implementation technologies. In particular, Chrome now uses this as a hint to put the origin in its own process, subject to resource or platform limitations.
Site isolation, i.e. process-per-site, is the current state of the art in protecting websites from each other. Certain legacy features prevent us from aligning this protection boundary with the origin boundary. Origin isolation allows developers to voluntarily give up these legacy features, in exchange for better isolation.
WebAssembly SIMD exposes hardware SIMD instructions to WebAssembly applications in a platform-independent way. The SIMD proposal introduces a new 128-bit value type that can be used to represent different types of packed data, and several vector operations that operate on packed data.
SIMD can boost performance by exploiting data level parallelism and is also useful when compiling native code to WebAssembly.
Completed Origin Trials
The following features, previously in a Chrome origin trial, are now enabled by default.
Content Indexing API
The Content Indexing API, now out of its origin trial, provides metadata about content that your web app has already cached. More specifically, it stores URLs for HTML documents that display stored media. The new API lets you add, list, and remove resources. Browsers can use the information in the index to display a list of offline-capable content. For more information, read Indexing your offline-capable pages with the Content Indexing API.
Wake Lock API Based on Promises
The Wake Lock API has been updated with promises. The Wake Lock API brought a standard, secure, and safe way to prevent some device features such as the screen or CPU cycles from going into power saving state. This update addresses some of the shortcomings of the older API which was limited to screen Wake Lock and didn’t address certain security and privacy issues.
Other Features in this Release
To improve users’ productivity and facilitate re-engagement with key tasks, Chrome now supports app shortcuts in Android. They allow web developers to provide quick access to a handful of common actions that users need frequently. For sites that are already Progressive Web Apps, creating shortcuts requires only adding items to the web app manifest. For more information, see Get things done quickly with app shortcuts.
Autoupgrade Image Mixed Content
“Mixed content” is when an HTTPS page loads content such as scripts or images over insecure HTTP. Previously, mixed images were allowed to load, but the lock icon was removed and, as of Chrome 80, replaced with a Not Secure chip. This was confusing and did not sufficiently discourage developers from loading insecure content that threatens the confidentiality and integrity of users’ data. Starting in Chrome 84, mixed image content will be upgraded to https and images will be blocked if they fail to load after upgrading. Auto upgrading of mixed audio and video content is expected in a future release.
Blocking Insecure Downloads from Secure (HTTPS) Contexts
Chrome intends to block insecurely-delivered downloads initiated from secure contexts (“mixed content downloads”). Once downloaded, a malicious file can circumvent any protections Chrome puts in place. Furthermore, Chrome does not and cannot warn users by downgrading security indicators on secure pages that initiate insecure downloads, as it does not reliably know whether an action will initiate an insecure download until the request is made.
User-visible warnings will start in Chrome 84 on desktop with plans to block insecure downloads completely in Chrome 88. Warnings will not appear in Android until Chrome 85. For details, see Protecting users from insecure downloads in Google Chrome.
ReportingObserver on Workers
Resize Observer Updates
The Resize Observer API was updated to conform to recent specs. ResizeObserverEntry has three new properties,
devicePixelContentBoxSize to provide more detailed information about the DOM feature being observed. This information is returned in an array of
ResizeObserverSize objects, which are also new. For information about the API generally, including updates about the features, see
ResizeObserver: it’s like
document.onresize for elements.
The revert keyword resets the style of an element to the browser default.
Unprefixed Appearance CSS Property
An unprefixed version of
-webkit-appearance is now available in CSS as
Unprefixed ruby-position CSS Property
ruby-position property is now supported
in Chrome. This is an unprefixed version of -webkit-ruby-position, which controls the position of a ruby annotation. This property has three possible values:
inter-character, but Chrome has only implemented the first two. This change creates feature parity with Firefox.
Web Authenticator API: Cross-origin iframe Support
Adds support for web authentication calls from cross-origin iframes if enabled by a feature policy. This brings Chrome in line with the Web Authentication Level Two specification.
Private Methods and Accessors
Deprecations, and Removals
@import rules in CSSStyleSheet.replace() Removed
The original spec for constructable stylesheets allowed for calls to:
This use case is being removed. Calls to
replace() now throw an exception if
@import rules are found in the replaced content.
Remove TLS 1.0 and TLS 1.1
TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the protocol which secures HTTPS. It has a long history stretching back to the nearly twenty-year-old TLS 1.0 and its even older predecessor, SSL. Both TLS 1.0 and 1.1 have a number of weaknesses.
- TLS 1.0 and 1.1 use MD5 and SHA-1, both weak hashes, in the transcript hash for the Finished message.
- TLS 1.0 and 1.1 use MD5 and SHA-1 in the server signature. (Note: this is not the signature in the certificate.)
- TLS 1.0 and 1.1 only support RC4 and CBC ciphers. RC4 is broken and has since been removed. TLS’s CBC mode construction is flawed and is vulnerable to attacks.
- TLS 1.0’s CBC ciphers additionally construct their initialization vectors incorrectly.
- TLS 1.0 is no longer PCI-DSS compliant.
Supporting TLS 1.2 is a prerequisite to avoiding the above problems. The TLS working group has deprecated TLS 1.0 and 1.1. Chrome has now also deprecated these protocols.
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