Monthly:December 2020

Introducing Monitoring Query Language, now GA in Cloud Monitoring

Developers and operators on IT and development teams want powerful metric querying, analysis, charting, and alerting capabilities to troubleshoot outages, perform root cause analysis, create custom SLI / SLOs, reports and analytics, set up complex alert logic, and more. So today we’re excited to announce the General Availability of Monitoring Query Language (MQL) in Cloud Monitoring!

MQL represents a decade of learnings and improvements on Google’s internal metric query language. The same language that powers advanced querying for internal Google production users, is  now available to Google Cloud users as well. For instance, you can use MQL to:

  • Create ratio-based charts and alerts

  • Perform time-shift analysis (compare metric data week over week, month over month, year over year, etc.)

  • Apply mathematical, logical, table operations, and other functions to metrics

  • Fetch, join, and aggregate over multiple metrics

  • Select by arbitrary, rather than predefined, percentile values

  • Create new labels to aggregate data by, using arbitrary string manipulations including regular expressions

Let’s take a look at how to access and use MQL from within Cloud Monitoring.

Getting started with MQL

It’s easy to get started with MQL. To access the MQL Query Editor, just click on the button in Cloud Monitoring Metrics Explorer:

MQL Query Editor.jpg

Then, create a query in the Metrics Explorer UI, and click the Query Editor button. This converts the existing query into an MQL query:

Query Editor.jpg

MQL is built using operations and functions. Operations are linked together using the common ‘pipe’ idiom, where the output of one operation becomes the input to the next. Linking operations makes it possible to build up complex queries incrementally. In the same way you would compose and chain commands and data via pipes on the Linux command line, you can fetch metrics and apply operations using MQL. 

For a more advanced example, suppose you’ve built a distributed web service that runs on Compute Engine VM instances and uses Cloud Load Balancing, and you want to analyze error rate—one of the SRE “golden signals”.

You want to see a chart that displays the ratio of requests that return HTTP 500 responses (internal errors) to the total number of requests; that is, the request-failure ratio. The metric type has a response_code_class label, which captures the class of response codes.

In this example, because the numerator and denominator for the ratio are derived from the same time series, you can also compute the ratio by grouping. The following query shows this approach:

This query uses an aggregation expression built on the ratio of two sums:

  • The first sum uses the if function to count 500-valued HTTP responses and a count of 0 for other HTTP response codes. The sum function computes the count of the requests that returned 500.

  • The second sum adds up the counts for all requests, as represented by val().

The two sums are then divided, resulting in the ratio of 500 responses to all responses.

Now let’s say that we want to create an alert policy from this query. You can go to Alerting, click “Create Policy”, click “Add Condition”, and you’ll see the same “Query Editor” button you saw in Metrics Explorer.

You can use the same query as above, but with a condition operator that provides the threshold for the alert:

The condition tests each data point in the aligned input table to determine whether the ratio value exceeds the threshold value of 50%. The string ’10^2.%’ specifies that the value should be used as a percentage.

In addition to ratios, another common use case for MQL is time shifting. For brevity, we won’t cover this in our blog post, but the example documentation walks you through performing week-over-week or month-over-month comparisons. This is particularly powerful when coupled with long-term retention of 24 months of custom and Prometheus metrics.

Take monitoring to the next level

The sky’s the limit for the use cases that MQL makes possible. Whether you need to perform joins, display arbitrary percentages, or make advanced calculations, we’re excited to make this available to all customers and we are interested to see how you will use MQL to solve your monitoring, alerting, and operations needs. To learn more about MQL, check out the documentation, quickstarts, examples (queries, alerts), a language and function reference, and more.

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Tips for writing and deploying Node.js apps on Cloud Functions

The DPE Client Library team at Google handles the release maintenance, and support of Google Cloud client libraries. Essentially, we act as the open-source maintainers of Google’s 350+ repositories on GitHub. It’s a big job…

For this work to scale, it’s been critical to automate various common tasks such as validating licenses, managing releases, and merging pull requests (PRs) once tests pass. To build our various automations, we decided to use the Node.js-based framework Probot, which simplifies the process of writing web applications that listen for Webhooks from the GitHub API. [Editor’s note: The team has deep expertise in Node.js. The co-author Benjamin Coe was the third engineer at npm, Inc, and is currently a core collaborator on Node.js.]

Along with the Probot framework, we decided to use Cloud Functions to deploy those automations, with the goal of reducing our operational overhead. We found that Cloud Functions are a great option for quickly and easily turning Node.js applications into hosted services:

Jump forward two years, we now manage 16 automations that handle over 2 million requests from GitHub each day. And we continue to use Cloud Functions to deploy our automations. Contributors can concentrate on writing their automations, and it’s easy for us to deploy them as functions in our production environment. 

Designing for serverless comes with its own set of challenges, around how you structure, deploy, and debug your applications, but we’ve found the trade-offs work for us.Throughout the rest of this article, drawing on these first-hand experiences, we outline best practices for deploying Node.js applications on Cloud Functions, with an emphasis on the following goals:

  • Performance – Writing functions that serve requests quickly, and minimize cold start times.

  • Observability – Writing functions that are easy to debug when exceptions do occur.

  • Leveraging the platform – Understanding the constraints that Cloud Functions and Google Cloud introduce to application development, e.g., understanding regions and zones.

With these concepts under your belt, you too can reap the operational benefits of running Node.js-based applications in a serverless environment, while avoiding potential pitfalls.  

Best practices for structuring your application

In this section, we discuss attributes of the Node.js runtime that are important to keep in mind when writing code intended to deploy Cloud Functions. Of most concern:

  • The average package on npm has a tree of 86 transitive dependencies (see: How much do we really know about how packages behave on the npm registry?). It’s important to consider the total size of your application’s dependency tree.

  • Node.js APIs are generally non-blocking by default, and these asynchronous operations can interact surprisingly with your function’s request lifecycle. Avoid unintentionally creating asynchronous work in the background of your application. 

With that as the backdrop, here’s our best advice for writing Node.js code that will run in Cloud Functions. 

1. Choose your dependencies wisely

Disk operations in the gVisor sandbox, which Cloud Functions run within, will likely be slower than on your laptop’s typical operating system (that’s because gVisor provides an extra layer of security on top of the operating system, at the cost of some additional latency). As such, minimizing your npm dependency tree reduces the reads necessary to bootstrap your application, improving cold start performance.

You can run the command npm ls –production to get an idea of how many dependencies your application has. Then, you can use the online tool to analyze individual dependencies, including their total byte size. You should remove any unused dependencies from your application, and favor smaller dependencies.

Equally important is being selective about the files you import from your dependencies. Take the library googleapis on npm: running require(‘googleapis’) pulls in the entire index of Google APIs, resulting in hundreds of disk read operations. Instead you can pull in just the Google APIs you’re interacting with, like so:

It’s common for libraries to allow you to pull in the methods you use selectively—be sure to check if your dependencies have similar functionality before pulling in the whole index.

2. Use ‘require-so-slow’ to analyze require-time performance

A great tool for analyzing the require-time performance of your application is require-so-slow. This tool allows you to output a timeline of your application’s require statements, which can be loaded in DevTools Timeline Viewer. As an example, let’s comparet loading the entire catalog of googleapis, versus a single required API (in this case, the SQL API):

Timeline of require(‘googleapis’):

Timeline of require('googleapis').jpg

The graphic above demonstrates the total time to load the googleapis dependency. Cold start times will include the entire 3s span of the chart.

Timeline of require(‘googleapis/build/src/apis/sql’):

Timeline of require('googleapis_build_src_apis_sql').jpg

The graphic above demonstrates the total time to load just the sql submodule. The cold start time is a more respectable 195ms.

In short, requiring the SQL API directly is over 10 times faster than loading the full googleapis index!

3. Understand the request lifecycle, and avoid its pitfalls

The Cloud Functions documentation issues the following warning about execution timelines: A function has access to the resources requested (CPU and memory) only for the duration of function execution. Code run outside of the execution period is not guaranteed to execute, and it can be stopped at any time. 

This problem is easy to bump into with Node.js, as many of its APIs are asynchronous by default. It’s important when structuring your application that res.send() is called only after all asynchronous work has completed. 

Here’s an example of a function that would have its resources revoked unexpectedly:

In the example above, the promise created by set() will still be running when res.send() is called. It should be rewritten like this:

This code will no longer run outside the execution period because we’ve awaited set() before calling res.send()

A good way to debug this category of bug is with well-placed logging: Add debug lines following critical asynchronous steps in your application. Include timing information in these logs relative to when your function begins a request. Using Logs Explorer, you can then examine a single request and ensure that the output matches your expectation; missing log entries, or entries coming significantly later (leaking into subsequent requests) are indicative of an unhandled promise.

During cold starts, code in the global scope (at the top of your source file, outside of the handler function) will be executed outside of the context of normal function execution. You should avoid asynchronous work entirely in the global scope, e.g,, as it will always run outside of the execution period.

4. Understand and use the global scope effectively

It’s okay to have ‘expensive’ synchronous operations, such as require statements, in the global scope. When benchmarking cold start times, we found that moving require statements to the global scope (rather than lazy-loading within your function) lead to a 500ms to 1s improvement in cold start times. This can be attributed to the fact that Cloud Functions are allocated compute resources while bootstrapping.

Also consider moving other expensive one-time synchronous operations, e.g., fs.readFileSync, into the global scope. The important thing to avoid asynchronous operations, as they will be performed outside of the execution period.

Cloud functions recycle the execution environment; this means that you can use the global scope to cache expensive one-time operations that remain constant during function invocations:

It’s critical that we await asynchronous operations before sending a response, but it’s okay to cache their response in the global scope.

5. Move expensive background operations into Cloud Tasks

A good way to improve the throughput of your Cloud function, i.e., reduce overall latency during cold starts and minimize the necessary instances during traffic spikes, is to move work outside of the request handler. Take the following application that performs several expensive database operations:

The response sent to the user does not require any information returned by our database updates. Rather than waiting for these operations to complete, we could instead use Cloud Tasks to schedule this operation in another Cloud function, and respond to the user immediately. This has the added benefit that Cloud Task queues support retry attempts, shielding your application from intermittent errors, e.g., a one-off failure writing to the database.

Here’s our prior example split into a user-facing function and a background function:

User-facing function:

Background function:

Deploying your application

The next section of this article discusses settings, such as memory, and location,that you should take into account when deploying your application.

1. Consider memory’s relationship to performance

Allocating more memory to your functions will also result in the allocation of more CPU (see: ‘’Compute Time”). For CPU-bound applications, e.g., applications that require a significant number of dependencies at start up, or that are performing computationally expensive operations (see: “ImageMagick Tutorial”), you should experiment with various instance sizes as a first step towards improving request and cold-start performance.

You should also be mindful of whether your function has a reasonable amount of available memory when running; applications that run too close to their memory limit will occasionally crash with out-of-memory errors, and may have unpredictable performance in general. 

You can use the Cloud Monitoring Metrics Explorer to view the memory usage of your Cloud functions. In practice, my team found that 128Mb functions did not provide enough memory for our Node.js applications, which average 136Mb. Consequently, we moved to the 256Mb setting for our functions and stopped seeing memory issues

2. Location, location, location

The speed of light dictates that the best case for TCP/IP traffic will be ~2ms latency per 100 miles1. This means that a request between New York City and London has a minimum of 50ms of latency. You should take these constraints into account when designing your application.

If your Cloud functions are interacting with other Google Cloud services, deploy your functions in the same region as these other services. This will ensure a high-bandwidth, low-latency network connection between your Cloud function and these services (see: “Regions and Zones”).

Make sure you deploy your Cloud functions close to your users. If people using your application are in California, deploy in us-west rather than us-east; this alone can save 70ms of latency.

Debugging and analyzing your application

The next section of this article provides some recommendations for effectively debugging your application once it’s deployed.

1. Add debug logging to your application:

In a Cloud Functions environment, avoid using client libraries such as @google-cloud/logging, and @google-cloud/monitoring for telemetry. These libraries buffer writes to the backend API, which can lead to work remaining in the background after calling res.send() outside of your application’s execution period.

Cloud functions are instrumented with monitoring and logging by default, which you can access with Metrics Explorer and Logs Explorer:

image 3.jpg

For structured logging, you can simply use JSON.stringify() which Cloud Logging interprets as structured logs:

The entry payload follows the structure described here. Note the timingDelta, as discussed in “Understand the request lifecycle”—this information can help you debug whether you have any unhandled promises hanging around after res.send().

There are CPU and network costs associated with logging, so be mindful about the size of entries that you log. For example, avoid logging huge JSON payloads when you could instead log a couple of actionable fields. Consider using an environment variable to vary logging levels; default to relatively terse actional logs, with the ability to turn on verbose logging for portions of your application using util.debuglog.

Our takeaways from using Cloud Functions

Cloud Functions work wonderfully for many types of applications:

  • Cloud Scheduler tasks: We have a Cloud function that checks for releases stuck in a failed state every 30 minutes.

2020 review: How serverless solutions helped customers thrive in uncertainty

What a year it has been. 2020 challenged even the most adaptive enterprises, upending their best laid plans. Yet, so many Google Cloud customers turned uncertainty into opportunity. They leaned into our serverless solutions to innovate rapidly, in many cases introducing brand new products, and delivering new features to respond to market demands. We were right there with them, introducing over a 100 new capabilities—faster than ever before! I’m grateful for the inspiration our customers provided, and the tremendous energy around our serverless solutions and cloud-native application delivery

Cloud Run proved indispensable amidst uncertainty 

As digital adoption accelerated, developers turned to Cloud Run—it’s the easiest, fastest way to get your code to production securely and reliably. With serverless containers under the hood, Cloud Run is optimized for web apps, mobile backends, and data processing, but can also run most any kind of application you can put in a container. Novice users in our studies built and deployed an app on Cloud Run on their first try in less than five minutes. It’s so fast and easy that anyone can deploy multiple times a day. 

It was a big year for Cloud Run. This year we added an end-to-end developer experience that goes from source and IDE to deploy, expanded Cloud Run to a total of 21 regions, and added support for streaming, longer timeouts, larger instances, gradual rollouts, rollbacks and much much more. 

These additions were immediately useful to customers. Take MediaMarktSaturn, a large European electronics retailer, which chose Cloud Run to handle a 145% traffic increase across its digital channels. Likewise, using Cloud Run and other managed services, IKEA was able to spin solutions for challenges brought by the pandemic in a matter of days, while saving 10x the operational costs. And unsurprisingly, Cloud Run has emerged as a service of choice for Google developers internally, who used it to spin up a variety of new projects throughout the year. 

With Cloud Run, Google Cloud is redefining serverless to mean so much more than functions, reflecting our belief that self-managing infrastructure and an excellent developer experience shouldn’t be limited to a single type of workload. That said, sometimes a function is just the thing you need, and this year we worked hard to add new capabilities to Cloud Functions, our managed function as a service offering. Here is a sampling: 

  • Expanded features and regions: Cloud Functions added 17 new capabilities and is available in several new regions, for a total 19 regions.  

  • A complete serverless solution: We also launched API Gateway, Workflows and Eventarc. With this suite, developers can now create, secure, and monitor APIs for their serverless workloads, orchestrate and automate Google Cloud and HTTP-based API services, and easily build event-driven applications.

  • Private access: With the integration between VPC Service Controls and Cloud Functions, enterprises can secure serverless services to mitigate threats, including data exfiltration. Enterprise can also take advantage of VPC Connector for Cloud Functions to enable private communication between cloud resources and on-premises hybrid deployments. 

  • Enterprise scale: Enterprises working with huge data sets can now leverage gRPC to connect a Cloud Run servicewith other services. And finally, the External HTTP(S) Load Balancing integration with Cloud Run and Cloud Functions lets enterprises run and scale services worldwide behind a single external IP address. 

While both Cloud Run and Cloud Functions have seen strong user adoption in 2020, we also continue to see strong growth in App Engine, our oldest serverless product, thanks largely to its integrated developer experience and automatic scaling benefits. In 2020, we added support for new regions, runtimes, and Load Balancing, to App Engine to further build upon developer productivity and scalability benefits.

top requested customer feature 1.jpg
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Built-in security powered continuous innovation 

Companies have had to reconfigure and rethink their business to adapt to the new normal during the pandemic. Cloud Build, our serverless continuous integration/continuous delivery (CI/CD) platform, helps by speeding up the build, test, and release cycle. Developers perform deep security scans within the CI/CD pipeline and ensure only trusted container images are deployed to production.

Consider the case of Khan Academy, which raced to meet unexpected demand as students moved to at-home learning. Khan Academy used Cloud Build to experiment rapidly with new features such as tailored schedules, while scaling seamlessly on App Engine. Then there was New York State, whose unemployment systems saw a 1,600% jump in new unemployment claims during the pandemic. The state rolled out a new website built on fully managed serverless services including Cloud Build, Pub/Sub, Datastore, and Cloud Logging to handle this increase. 

We added a host of new capabilities to Cloud Build in 2020 across the following areas to make these customer successes possible: 

  • Enterprise readiness: Artifact Registry brings together many of the features requested by our enterprise customers, including support for granular IAM, regional repositories, CMEK , VPC-SC, along with the ability to manage Maven, npm packages and containers. 

  • Ease of use: With just a few clicks, you can create CI/CD pipelines that implement out-of-the-box best practices for Cloud Run and GKE. We also added support for buildpacks to Cloud Build to help you easily create and deploy secure, production-ready container images to Cloud Run or GKE. 

  • Interoperability across CI/CD vendors: Tekton, founded by Google in 2018 and donated to the Continuous Delivery Foundation (CDF) in 2019, is becoming the de facto standard for CI/CD across vendors, languages, and deployment environments, with contributions from over 90 companies. In 2020, we added support for new features like triggers to Tekton.  

  • GitHub integration: We brought advanced serverless CI/CD capabilities to GitHub, where millions of you collaborate on a day-to-day basis. With the new Cloud Build GitHub app, you can configure and trigger builds based on specific pull request, branch, and tag events.

top requested customer feature 2.jpg
Click to enlarge

Continuous innovation succeeds when your toolchain provides security by default, i.e., when security is built into your process. For New York State, Khan Academy and numerous others, a secure software supply chain is an essential part of delivering software securely to customers. And the availability of innovative, powerful, best-in-class native security controls is precisely why we believe Google Cloud was named a leader in the latest Forrester Wave™ IaaS Platform Native Security, Q4 2020 report, and rated highest among all providers evaluated in the current offering category.

Onboarding developers seamlessly to cloud 

We know cloud development can be daunting, with all its services, heaps of documentation and a continuous flow of new technologies. To help, we invested in making it easier to onboard to cloud and maximizing developer productivity:

  • Cloud Shell Editor with in-context tutorials: My personal favorite go-to tool for learning and using Google Cloud is our Cloud Shell Editor. Available on, Cloud Shell Editor is a fully functional development tool that requires no local setup, and is available directly from the browser. We recently enhanced Cloud Shell Editor with in-context tutorials, built-in auth support for Google Cloud APIs, and extensive developer tooling. Do give it a try, we hope you like it as much as we do!
In-context tutorials available within Cloud Shell Editor.jpg
In-context tutorials available within Cloud Shell Editor
  • Speed up cloud-native development: To improve the process of building serverless applications, we integrated Cloud Run and Cloud Code. And to speed up Kuberentes development via Cloud Code, we added support for buildpacks. We also added built-in support for 400 popular Kubernetes CRDs out of the box, along with new features such as inline documentation, completions, and schema validation to make it easy for developers to write YAML. 

  • Leverage the best of Google Cloud: Cloud Code now lets you easily integrate numerous APIs, including AI/ML, compute, databases, identity and access management as you build out your app. Additionally, with new Secret Manager integration, you can manage sensitive data like API keys, passwords, and certificates, right from your IDE.

Modernize legacy applications:  With Spring Cloud GCP we made it easy for you to modernize legacy Java applications with little-to-no code changes. Additionally, we announced free accessto the Anthos Developer Sandbox, which allows anyone with a Google account to develop applications on Anthos at no cost.

top requested customer feature 3.jpg
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Onwards to 2021

In short, it’s been a busy year, and like everyone else, we’re looking out to 2021, when everyone can benefit from the accelerated digital transformation that companies undertook this year. We hope to be a part of your journey in 2021, helping developers build applications quickly and securely that allow your business to adapt to market changes and improve your customers’ experience. Stay safe, have a happy holiday, and we look forward to working with you to build the next generation of amazing applications!

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2020: The year in databases at Google Cloud

2020 was a year unlike any other, and all its unexpectedness brought foundational enterprise technology into the spotlight. Businesses needed their databases to be reliable, scalable, and consistently well-performing. As a result, migration plans accelerated, rigid licensing fell further out of favor, and transformative application development sped up. This was clear even in 2019, when cloud database management system (DBMS) revenues were $17 billion, up 54% from 2018, according to Gartner Predicts. We’ll be eager to see what Gartner reports from 2020, but from our perspective, growth accelerated significantly this year. 

We believe that our data vision of openness and flexibility was reflected in the first-ever DBMS Magic Quadrant this year. Gartner named Google Cloud a Leader in DBMS for 2020. 

We heard from customers across industries that this was the year they started or stepped up their database modernization. To help them meet their mission-critical goals, Google Cloud continued to launch new products and features. Here’s what was new and notable this year.

New options, new flexibility entered the cloud database scene

Database migration service now available for Cloud SQL
Database migrations can be a challenge for enterprises. We give our customers a uniquely easy, secure, and reliable experience with the recent launch of our serverless Database Migration Service (DMS), which provides high-fidelity, minimal downtime migrations for MySQL and PostgreSQL workloads and is designed to be truly cloud-native. Our blog announcing the launch has more info, and steps to get you started. 

SQL Server, managed in the cloud
Enterprise companies often tell us how important the ability to migrate to Cloud SQL for SQL Server is to their larger goals of infrastructure modernization and a multi-cloud strategy. Cloud SQL for SQL Server is now generally available globally to help you keep your SQL Server workloads running. Our blog on the subject lists the five steps to get started migrating, a link to the full migration guide, and a helpful video for more details. 

Bare Metal Solution for Oracle databases comes to five new Google Cloud regions
Bare Metal Solution lets businesses run specialized workloads such as Oracle databases in Google Cloud Regional Extensions, while lowering overall costs and reducing risks associated with migration. Last year we announced the availability of Bare Metal Solution in five more regions: Ashburn, Virginia; Frankfurt; London; Los Angeles, California; and Sydney. We also launched four more sites this year: Amsterdam, São Paulo, Singapore, and Tokyo. 

Customers did amazing things with cloud databases in 2020

We’ve seen some clear trends emerge in cloud migration. We’ve seen customers follow what we’re referring to as a three-phase journey: migration, when they transition large commercial and open source databases; modernization, which involves moving from legacy to open source databases; and transformation, building next-gen applications and opening up new possibilities. Wherever you are in this journey, Google Cloud is focused on supporting you with the services, best practices, and tooling ecosystem to enable your success.

At pharmaceutical and pharmacy technology giant McKesson, teams chose Cloud SQL to modernize their legacy environment. 3D printing and design company Makerbot shared how they architected Google Cloud’s tightly integrated tools—including Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), Pub/Sub, and Cloud SQL—for an innovative autoscaling solution.

We heard from Bluecore, developer of a marketing platform for large retailers that delivers campaigns through predictive data models, about how they turned to Cloud SQL for a fully managed solution that offered campaign creation functionality without slowing down the retail brand’s website. Customers like Handshake, provider of a platform to connect universities, also chose a Cloud SQL migration. Financial solutions provider Freedom Financial Network switched from Rackspace to Cloud SQL to meet growing demand. 

And at Google Cloud Next ‘20: OnAir, we heard from ShareChat and The New York Times about the successes they’ve found using our cloud-native databases. We also heard from Khan Academy, which uses Cloud Firestore to help meet the rising demand for online learning. 

Enterprise readiness arrived for open source databases

In the event of a regional outage in Google Cloud, you want your application and database to quickly start serving your customers in another available region. This year, we launched Cloud SQL cross-region replication, available for MySQL and PostgreSQL database engines. We’ve worked closely with Cloud SQL customers facing business continuity challenges to simplify the experience, and our blog explains how to get started and offers a look at how Major League Baseball puts cross-region replication to use.

In addition, Cloud SQL added committed use discounts as well as more maintenance controls, serverless exports, and point-in-time-recovery for Postgres.

This past fall, we announced that Cloud SQL now supports MySQL 8. You now have access to a variety of powerful new features for better productivity—such as instant DDL statements (e.g. ADD COLUMN), atomic DDL, privilege collection using roles, window functions, and extended JSON syntax. Check out the full list of new features

Cloud SQL database service adds PostgreSQL 13
We also launched support in Cloud SQL for PostgreSQL 13, giving you access to the latest features of PostgreSQL while letting Cloud SQL handle the heavy operational lifting. Recent PostgreSQL 13 performance improvements across the board include enhanced partitioning capabilities, increased index and vacuum efficiency, and better extended monitoring. Our recent blog has more details, more features, and instructions for getting started. 

Tools for measuring performance of Memorystore for Redis
A popular open source in-memory data store, Redis is used as a database, cache, and message broker. Memorystore for Redis is Google Cloud’s fully managed Redis service. Memorystore recently added support for Redis 5.0, as well as VPC service controls, Redis Auth and TLS encryption. You’ll see how you can measure the performance of Memorystore for Redis, as well as performance tuning best practices for memory management, query optimizations, and more. 

Cloud-native databases: trusted for enterprise workloads, better for developers 

Google Cloud Spanner is the only managed relational database with unlimited scale, strong consistency, and 99.999% availability. (Check out more details on what’s new in Spanner.) In 2020, we announced new enterprise capabilities for Spanner, including the general availability of managed backup-restore and ninenew multi-regions of Spanner that offer 99.999% availability. Spanner also introduced support for new SQL capabilities, including query optimizer versioning, foreign keys, check constraints, and generated columns. Plus, Spanner introduced the C++ client library for C++ application developers and local Emulator that lets you develop and test your applications using a local emulator, helping reduce application development costs. 

Bigtable, our fully managed NoSQL database service, now offers managed backups for high business continuity and lets users add data protection to workloads with minimal management overhead. Bigtable expanded its support for smaller workloads, letting you create production instances with one or two nodes per cluster, down from the previous minimum of three nodes per cluster.

Firestore, which lets mobile and web developers build apps easily, added new features such as the Rules Playground, letting you test your updated Firebase Security rules quickly. The Firestore Unity SDK, added this year, makes it easy for game developers to adopt Firestore. In addition, Firestore introduced a C++ client library and offers a richer query language with a range of new operators, including not-in, array-contains, not-equal, less than, greater than, and others. 

That’s a wrap for the year in databases. Stay tuned to the Google Cloud Blog for up-to-the-minute announcements, launches, and best practices for 2021. 

Gartner, Magic Quadrant for Cloud Database Management Systems, November 23, 2020, Donald Feinberg, Adam Ronthal, Merv Adrian, Henry Cook, Rick Greenwald

Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product or service depicted in its research publications and does not advise technology users to select only those vendors with the highest ratings or other designation. Gartner research publications consist of the opinions of Gartner’s research organization and should not be construed as statements of fact. Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose

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Top 9 posts from Google Cloud in 2020

In 2020, everything changed. Who would have expected that how we live, work, communicate, and learn would be different by the end of the year? At Google Cloud, we saw how COVID-19 forced changes not only in how our customers worked in offices, but also how software developers and IT practitioners innovated. To support these changes, we introduced new products, features, and resources to address the needs we hear most from our customers: how to better connect people, how to get smarter with your data, how to build faster, and how to do this all with the confidence that your data is safe. Meeting your customers’ needs is essential, and so is empowering your employees with the tools and information they need in real time.

Here, we take a look back at the year’s most popular posts from the Google Cloud blog:

1. Google Workspace brought productivity to a new level

The arrival of Google Workspaceallowed our customers to better connect their workforce with the tools they needed to get anything done, in one place. It included everything our customers loved about G Suite, including all of the familiar productivity apps—Gmail, Calendar, Drive, Docs, Sheets, Slides, Meet—and added a new, deeply integrated user experience. For example, we introduced new ways that core Workspace tools like video, chat, email, files, and tasks became more deeply integrated, powerful, and efficient.

2. New features and security measures made Google Meet the place to be

2020 was all about connecting virtually. As more employees, educators, and students worked remotely in response to the spread of COVID-19, we wanted to help them stay connected and productive. We rolled out free access to our advanced Google Meet video-conferencing capabilities to all G Suite and G Suite for Education customers globally through September. We added features such as support for larger meetings for up to 250 participants per call; live streaming for up to 100,000 viewers; and the ability to record meetings and save them to Google Drive. 

We also rolled out other top-requested features, including tiled layouts, low-light mode, noise cancellation, and others. And as the year progressed, we never stopped innovating, introducing Meet on the Nest Hub Max, customizable backgrounds, and moderation controls like meeting attendance, Q&A, and polling. 

We also shared the array of counter-abuse protections we built to give you confidence that your meetings are safe, including anti-hijacking measures for both web meetings and dial-ins and browser-based security features, 2-step Verification, and our Advanced Protection Program. For schools, we introduced several features to improve the remote learning experiences for teachers and students. 

3. Google Cloud learning resources connected cloud students with new topics

To help you transition to remote work and learning, we shared details about our Google Cloud learning resources, which you can use at home. These include our extensive catalog of over 100 on-demand training courses on Pluralsight and Coursera designed to get you started on the path to certification in cloud architecture, data engineering, and machine learning; hands-on labs on Qwiklabs; and interactive webinars at no cost for 30 days, so you can gain cloud experience—and get smarter about cloud—no matter where you are. 

 4. The COVID-19 public dataset program opened up a world of research possibilities

To aid researchers, data scientists, and analysts in the fight against COVID-19, we made a hosted repository of public datasets, like our COVID-19 Open Data dataset, free to access and query through our COVID-19 Public Dataset Program. Researchers can also use BigQuery MLto train advanced machine learning models with this data right inside BigQuery at no additional cost. 

5. Google Cloud’s coronavirus response combined business continuity, monitoring, free resources, and more

With all of the challenges impacting our customers, we wanted to give them confidence that our people were here when you needed them. We outlined all of the measures we take to make our services available to customers everywhere during the pandemic and beyond. These include regular disaster recovery testing (DiRT) of our infrastructure and processes; multiple SRE coverage areas; compute and storage hardware capacity monitoring and reserves; remote access and backup contingencies for our support teams; enhanced support structure for customers on the front lines; and free access to the premium version of Hangouts Meet to existing customers. 

6. AppSheet empowered citizen app developers with no-code

We were proud to share that Google acquired AppSheet, a leading no-code application development platform used by enterprises across a variety of industries. This acquisition helps enterprises empower millions of citizen developers to more easily and quickly create and extend applications without the need for professional coding skills. Employees will be able to develop richer applications at scale that use Google Sheets and Forms, and top Google technologies like Android, Maps, and Google Analytics. In addition, AppSheet customers can continue to integrate with a number of cloud-hosted data sources, including Salesforce, Dropbox, AWS DynamoDB, and MySQL. 

7. API experts brought order to complex design decisions

As many software developers know, there are two primary models for API design: RPC and REST. Most modern APIs are implemented by mapping them to the same HTTP protocol. It’s also common for RPC API designs to adopt one or two ideas from HTTP while staying within the RPC model, which has increased the range of choices that an API designer faces. We looked at the choices and offered guidance on how to choose between them, focusing on gRPC, OpenAPI, and REST—three significant and distinct approaches for building APIs that use HTTP.

8. Google Cloud detective work solved a tricky networking problem

If you’ve ever wondered how Google Cloud Technical Solutions Engineers (TSE) approach your support cases, we offered a Google Cloud mystery story—the case of the missing DNS packets. Follow along to see how they worked closely with our customer to gather information in the course of their troubleshooting, and how they reasoned their way through to a resolution. This true story offers insight into what to expect the next time you submit a ticket to Google Cloud support.

9. Google Cloud Next ‘20: OnAir lit up the digital stage

Finally, to keep you up to date with all of the important announcements made at Google Cloud Next ‘20: On Air, we offered a week-by-week breakdown focused on product areas like application development, artificial intelligence and machine learning, databases, data analytics and much more. Check out the blog for the full list.

That’s a wrap for 2020! Keep coming back to the Google Cloud blog for announcements, helpful advice, customer stories, and more in 2021.

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In case you missed it: here’s what happened in data analytics in 2020

2020 was a tough year. As the global pandemic spread and impacted every country, industry, and individual, we turned to data and analytics to help guide us through the unknown. We used data and the cloud to help us understand the spread of COVID-19 while simultaneously digitally transforming industries to offer a safer way for the public to get what they need when they need it. Data and analytics became a critical tool for our essential workers and businesses as they navigated this trying time. Our data analytics team was hard at work to help organizations rethink their business strategy in order to deliver services to their customers.

Everything we heard from customers this year and what we worked on here at Google Cloud reflects this new sense of urgency around using and sharing data across the digital world. Here’s a look back at the four major themes we focused on in 2020 and why they will be more relevant than ever in 2021.

Beyond BI—do more with intelligent services 

The amount of data generated today is overwhelming, but an abundance of data doesn’t necessarily equate to useful information. Companies are already employing business intelligence (BI) to get insights from their data and achieve better business outcomes. Now, they can augment their current solutions with AI and machine learning (ML) to analyze massive datasets, recognize patterns, and gain insights that help define the past, the present—and the future.

For example, Looker enables teams to go beyond traditional reports and dashboards to deliver modern BI, integrated insights, data-driven workflows, and custom applications using Looker Blocks. Users also benefit from real-time analytics and aggregate awareness capabilities to stream the most relevant data for high performance and efficient queries. You can use BigQuery ML to build custom ML models without moving data from the warehouse, including real-time AI solutions like anomaly detection. Additionally, the natural language interface Data QnA, announced at Next OnAir, empowers business users to analyze datasets conversationally without adding more work for BI teams.

Open platforms for choice, flexibility, and portability

With the proliferation of SaaS applications and a workload-at-a-time migration mentality, a majority of enterprise cloud architectures are being built with two or more public clouds. This allows enterprises to take advantage of the lowest storage and compute costs, use the most innovative AI and ML services, and provides freedom of portability if needed. That’s why we are committed to being open at Google Cloud.

By 2021, over 75% of midsize and large organizations will have adopted a multicloud and/or hybrid IT strategy. Gartner Predicts

We’re breaking down silos across different environments to enable our customers to manage, process, analyze, and activate data—no matter where it is. This year, we introduced BigQuery Omni, our flexible, multi-cloud analytics solution that lets you analyze data in Google Cloud, AWS, and Azure (coming soon) without the need for cross-cloud data movement. In addition, Looker’s in-database architecture allows you to query data where it’s located to give you a consistent way to analyze data, even across multiple databases and clouds. 

We believe our vision of a multi-cloud, open data analytics future was reflected in this year’s brand-new Gartner Magic Quadrant for Cloud Database Management Systems (DBMS). Google was named a Leader among the furthest three positioned vendors on the completeness-of-vision axis. 

In 2020, we also helped organizations like Wayfair migrate their on-prem data analytics open source software to our open cloud. This type of portability allows them to take advantage of cloud scale and costs with Dataproc, while lowering the adoption barrier for their data analytics professionals familiar with Apache Spark, Presto, and Apache Hive.

Wayfair transforms their merchandising with Google Cloud

To strengthen our backup and DR capabilities across all of Google Cloud, Google recently acquired Actifio. Enterprises running critical workloads on Google Cloud, including hybrid scenarios, can prevent data loss and downtime due to external threats, network failures, human errors, and other disruptions.  

Scale intelligently without losing control

Data analytics are now mission-critical for many businesses, but how do you respond efficiently to rapid demand and put data into the right hands without driving up costs? Can you achieve flexibility and predictability? 

Over the past year, we heard from customers as they navigated the unprecedented jump to online shopping as brick-and-mortar retailers shut their doors. At the same time, they still had to plan for regular calendar events like Black Friday/Cyber Monday and product launches. We announced BigQuery Flex Slots to help them scale their cloud data warehouses up and down quickly while only paying for what they consumed. We also made it easier to optimize data processing and migration to the cloud with a new Dataflow change data capture (CDC) solution that focuses on ingesting and processing changed records, rather than all available data. 

In addition, we recognize that organizations are dealing with an increasing number of rich assets to meet the demands of a data-driven workforce. Data is now used by everyone in an organization—not just data analysts. To us, that means giving people smart tools to derive more value regardless of their roles, such as a data catalog for self-service data discovery or product recommendation reference patterns that make it easier to use data to improve customer experience.

Making data analytics work for you

Despite its challenges, 2020 was also a year of unimaginable growth, innovation, and inspiration. At Google Cloud, we learned a lot about what’s important to you and how you’re using data analytics to reach new milestones. 

We heard stories from KeyBank and Trendyol Group as they migrated to BigQuery cloud data warehouse, learned how Procter & Gamble uses cloud analytics to personalize their consumer experience, and helped ThetaLabs partner with NASA to deliver more engaging streaming video

Major League Baseball (MLB) used Google Cloud to derive better insights from baseball data that helps broadcasters and content generators tell better stories and drive fan engagement. Conrad Electric selected Looker to gain visibility into product performance and unlock insights to optimize them accordingly. And Blue Apron embedded smart analytics across the entire customer journey, from recipe recommendations and improving the quality of their supply chain to streamlining packaging workflows. 

But perhaps the most inspiring leaps have been the ways smart analytics can be leveraged to help in the face of crisis. For instance, Commonwealth Care Alliance (CCA) used data analytics from Google Cloud to help clinicians and care managers prioritize care for high-risk patients. Reliable data and an easy way to get answers has made it possible for them to keep pace with changing factors and ensure they could provide the best care for their members.

Get ready for 2021 

Google Cloud data analytics training for all skill levels gives you the confidence to build a data cloud and take advantage of our open, flexible, and intelligent platform. Learn more about our smart analytics solutions at Google Cloud

On behalf of Google, we’d like to thank you for being on this journey with us. We wish you the warmest of holiday seasons and can’t wait to see what we’ll build together in 2021. 

Gartner, Magic Quadrant for Cloud Database Management Systems, November 23, 2020, Donald Feinberg, Adam Ronthal, Merv Adrian, Henry Cook, Rick Greenwald

Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product or service depicted in its research publications and does not advise technology users to select only those vendors with the highest ratings or other designation. Gartner research publications consist of the opinions of Gartner’s research organization and should not be construed as statements of fact. Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

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A revolution is coming for data and the cloud: 6 predictions for 2021

Offering predictions can be a challenge, because specific predictions depend on specific timeframes. But looking at the trends that we’re seeing in cloud adoption, there are a few things I’ve seen in 2020 that imply changes we will be seeing in 2021. 

As someone who was a network engineer when the internet revolution happened, I can see the signs of another revolution—this time built around the cloud and data—and acting on the signs of change will likely tell the difference between the disruptors and the disrupted. 

Here’s what I see coming down the road, and what’s important to keep in mind as we head into a new year.

1. The next phase of cloud computing is about the benefits of transformation (not just cost). 

In 2021, cloud models will start to include a governed data architecture, with accelerated adoption of analytics and AI throughout an organization. In the past, we’ve seen notable developments that have driven massive cloud adoption movements. The first wave of cloud migration was driven by applications as a service, which gave businesses the tools to develop more quickly and securely for specific applications, e.g. CRM. Then, the second generation saw a lot of companies modernizing infrastructure to move on from physical data center maintenance.  

That’s all been useful for businesses, but with all that’s happened in 2020, the third phase—digital transformation—will arrive in earnest. As this happens, we’ll start to see the benefits that come from truly transforming your business. Positive outcomes include the infusion of data analytics and AI/ML into everyday business processes, leading to profound impacts across every industry and society at large.

2. Compliance can’t just be an add-on item.

The modern cloud model has to be one that can withstand the scrutiny around data sovereignty and accessibility questions. It’ll change how companies do business and how much of society is run. Even large, traditional enterprises are moving to the cloud to handle urgent needs, like increased regulations. The stakes are too high now for enterprises to ignore the critical components of security and privacy. 

One of the big reasons the cloud—and Google Cloud specifically—is so vital to better data analytics revolves around these questions of compliance and governance. Around the world, for businesses of every size, there’s an increased focus on security, privacy, and data sovereignty. So much of the digital transformation that we’ll see in 2021 will happen out of necessity, but today’s cloud is what makes it possible. Google Cloud is a platform built ground-up based on these foundational requirements, so enterprises can make the transition to the cloud with the assurance that data is protected.  

3. Open infrastructure will reign supreme. 

By 2021, we’ll see 80% or more of enterprises adopt a multicloud or hybrid IT strategy. Cloud customers want options for their workloads. Open infrastructure and open APIs are the way forward, and the open philosophy is one you should embrace. No business can afford to have its valuable data locked into a particular provider or service. 

This emerging open standard means you’ll start to see multi-cloud and on-premises data sources coming together rapidly. With the right tools, organizations can use multiple cloud services together, letting them gain the specific benefits they need from each cloud as if it was all one infrastructure. The massive shift we’re seeing toward both openness and cloud also brings a shift toward stronger data assets and better data analytics. If you’ve been surprised over the past year about how many data sources exist for your company, or how much of it is gathered, you’re not alone. An open infrastructure will let you choose the cloud path that works best for your business. 

Data solutions like Looker and BigQuery Omni are specifically designed to work in an open API environment on our open platform to stay ahead of continually changing data sources.

4. Harnessing the power of AI/ML will no longer require a degree in data science. 

Data science, with all of the expertise and specialized tools that have typically been involved, can no longer be the purview of just the privileged few. Teams throughout an organization need to have access to the power of data science, with capabilities like ML modeling and AI, without having to learn an entirely new discipline. For many of these team members, it’ll bring new life into their jobs and the decisions they need to make. If they haven’t been consuming data, they’ll start. 

With this capacity to give the whole team the power of analytics, businesses will be able to gather, analyze, and act on data far quicker than those who are still using the traditional detached data science model. This improves productivity and informed decision making by giving employees the tools to gather, sort, and share data on demand. It also frees up teams with data science experience that would normally be assembling, analyzing, and creating presentations to concentrate on tasks that are more suited to their abilities and training.  

With Google Cloud’s infrastructure and our data and AI/ML solutions, it’s easy to move data to the cloud easily and start analyzing it. Tools like Connected Sheets, Data QnA, and Looker make data analytics something that all employees can do, regardless of whether they are certified data analysts or scientists. 

5. More and more of the world’s enterprise data will need to be processed in real time. 

We’re quickly getting to the point where data residing in the cloud outpaces data residing in data centers. That’s happening as worldwide data is expected to grow 61% by 2025, to 175 zettabytes. That’s a lot of data, which offers a trove of opportunity for businesses to explore. The challenge is capturing data usefulness in the moment. Following past stored data can be informative, but more and more use cases require immediate information, especially when it comes to reacting to unexpected events. For example, identifying and stopping a network security breach in the moment, with real-time data and a real-time reaction, has enormous consequences for a business. That one moment can save untold hours and costs spent on mitigation.

This is the same method that we use to help our customers overcome DDOS attacks, and if 2020 has taught us anything, it’s that businesses will need this ability to instantly respond to unexpected problems more than ever moving forward.

While real-time data revolutionizes how quickly we gather data, perhaps the most unexpected yet incredibly useful source of data we’ve seen is predictive analytics. Traditionally, data is gathered only from the physical world, meaning the only way to plan for what will happen was to look at what could physically be tested. But with predictive models and AI/ML tools like BigQuery ML, organizations can run simulations based on real-life scenarios and information, giving them data on circumstances that would be difficult, costly, or even impossible to test for in physical environments.

6. More than 50% of data lakes will span multiple clouds and on-premises. 

We know that aligning the right services to the right use cases can be complicated. And while the cloud opens up a ton of opportunities for better data options, the fact that so many businesses are moving to these cloud solutions means that organizations will need a strong digital strategy to stay competitive, and this extends down to their data storage. Lots of businesses are choosing multicloud for flexibility, especially with so many options available. In the cloud, data storage has taken the shape of either a data warehouse—which stores primarily structured data so that everything is easily searchable—or data lakes—which bring together all of a business’ data together, regardless of structure. 

We’ll see more of the trend we’ve already seen, starting with the line between lake and warehouse getting blurrier. Google Cloud has a variety of data lake modernization solutions that give organizations the ability to integrate unstructured data as well as use AI/ML solutions to make data lakes easier to navigate, driving insights and collaboration.

What’s next for your business?

Change is happening fast, and while it can be overwhelming, all these technology changes are really exciting. At the end of it, you’ll be able to respond in real-time to problems, help your business users get their data without delay, and know for sure the entire lifecycle of any of your data. Let’s get started.

Check out our guide to building a modern data warehouse or see how data-to-value leaders succeed in driving results from their enterprise data strategy in the report by Harvard Business Review Analytic Services: Turning data into unmatched business value.

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Managed cloud databases bring speed, scale and new features for ecobee customers

Ecobee is a Toronto-based maker of smart home solutions that help improve the everyday lives of customers while creating a more sustainable world. They moved from on-premises systems to managed services with Google Cloud to add capacity and scale and develop new products and features faster. Here’s how they did it and how they’ve saved time and money.

An ecobee home isn’t just smart, it’s intelligent. It learns, adjusts, and adapts based on your needs, behaviors, and preferences. We design meaningful solutions that include smart cameras, light switches, and thermostats that work so well together, they fade into the background and become an essential part of your everyday life. 

Our very first product was the world’s very first smart thermostat (yes, really) and we launched it in 2007. In developing SmartThermostat, we had originally used a homegrown software stack using relational databases that we kept scaling out. Ecobee thermostats send device telemetry data to the back end. This data drives the HomeIQ feature, which offers data visualization to the users on the performance of their HVAC system and how well it is maintaining their comfort settings. In addition to that, there’s the eco+ feature that supercharges the SmartThermostat to be even more efficient, helping customers make the best use of peak hours when cooling or heating their home. As more and more ecobee thermostats came online, we found ourselves running out of space. The volume of telemetric data we had to handle was just continuing to grow, and we found it really challenging to scale out our existing solution in our collocated data center.

Graph showing 95th percentile latency drop.jpg
Graph showing 95th percentile latency drop to 0.1, or a 10x performance improvement, of our previous storage solution on switching to Bigtable.

In addition, we were seeing lag time when we ran high-priority jobs on our database replica. We invested a lot of time in sprints just to fix and debug recurring issues. To meet our aggressive product development goals, we had to move quickly to find a better designed and more flexible solution. 

Choosing cloud for speed and scale

With the scalability and capacity problems we were having, we looked to cloud services, and knew we wanted a managed service. We first adopted BigQuery as a solution to use with our data store. For our cooler storage, anything older than six months, we read data from BigQuery and reduce the amount we store on a hot data store.

The pay-per-query model wasn’t the right fit for our development databases, though, so we explored Google Cloud’s database services. We started by understanding the access patterns of the data we’d be running on the database, which didn’t have to be relational. The data didn’t have a defined schema but did require low latency and high scalability. We also had tens of terabytes of data we’d be migrating to this new solution. We found that Cloud Bigtable would be our best option to fill our need for horizontal scale, expanded read rate capacity, and disk that would scale as far as we needed, instead of disk that would hold us back. We’re now able to scale to as many SmartThermostats as possible and handle all of that data.

Home IQ system monitor dashboard.jpg
Home IQ system monitor dashboard showing HVAC runtimes and home temperature over time. This is powered by data in Bigtable.

Enjoying the results of a better back end

The biggest advantage we’ve witnessed since switching to Bigtable is the financial savings. We were able to significantly reduce the costs of running Home IQ features, and have significantly reduced the latency of the feature by 10x by migrating all our data, hot and cold, to Bigtable. Our Google Cloud cost went from about $30,000 per month down to $10,000 per month once we added Bigtable, even as we scaled our usage for even more use cases. Those are profound improvements. 

We’ve also saved a ton of engineering time with Bigtable on the back end. Another huge benefit is that we can use traffic routing, so it’s much easier to shift traffic to different clusters based on workload. We currently use single-cluster routing to route writes and high-priority workloads to our primary cluster, while batch and other low-priority workloads get routed to our secondary cluster. The cluster an application uses is configured through its specific application profile. The drawback with this setup is that if a cluster becomes unavailable, there is visible customer impact in terms of latency spikes, and this hurts our service-level objectives (SLOs). Also, switching traffic to another cluster with this setup is manual. We have plans to switch to multi-cluster routing to mitigate these issues, since Bigtable will automatically switch operations to another cluster in the event a cluster is unavailable. 

And the benefits of using a managed service are huge. Now that we’re not constantly managing our infrastructure, there are so many possibilities to explore. We’re focused now on improving our product’s features and scaling it out. We use Terraform to manage our infrastructure, so scaling up is now as simple as applying a Terraform change. Our Bigtable instance is well-sized to support our current load, and scaling up that instance to support more thermostats is easy. Given our existing access patterns, we’ll only have to scale Bigtable usage as our storage needs increase. Since we only keep data for a retention period of eight months, this will be driven by the number of thermostats online.

Ops heatmap.jpg
Ops heatmap showing what our hot key ranges are. Note, though, that hot key ranges are in the 10 microOps/row/min band, which is still very low.

The Cloud Console also offers a continually updated heat map that shows how keys are being accessed, how many rows exist, how much CPU is being used, and more. That’s really helpful in ensuring we design good key structure and key formats going forward. We also set up alerts on Bigtable in our monitoring system and use heuristics so we know when to add more clusters. 

Now, when our customers see up-to-the-minute energy use in their homes, and when thermostats switch automatically to cool or heat as needed, that information is all backed by Bigtable.

Learn more about ecobee and Google Cloud’s databases.

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MuZero: Mastering Go, chess, shogi and Atari without rules

Planning winning strategies in unknown environments is a step forward in the pursuit of general-purpose algorithms.Read More

Application rationalization: Why you need to take this first step in your migration journey

Application rationalization is a process of going over the application inventory to determine which applications should be retired, retained, reposted, replatformed, refactored or reimagined. This is an important process for every enterprise in making investment or divestment decisions. Application rationalization is critical for maintaining the overall hygiene of the app portfolio irrespective of where you are running your applications i.e. in cloud or not. However, if you are looking to migrate to the cloud, it serves as a first step towards a cloud adoption or migration journey. 

In this blog we will explore drivers and challenges while providing a step-by-step process to rationalize and modernize your application portfolio. This is also the first blog post in a series of posts that we will publish on the app rationalization and modernization topic.

There are several drivers for application rationalization for organizations, mostly centered around reducing redundancies, paying down technical debt, and getting a handle on growing costs. Some specific examples include: 

  • Enterprises going through M&A (mergers and acquisitions), which introduces the applications and services of a newly acquired business, many of which may duplicate those already in place.

  • Siloed lines of businesses independently purchasing software that exists outside the scrutiny and control of the IT organization.

  • Embarking on a digital transformation and revisiting existing investments with an eye towards operational improvements and lower maintenance costs. See the CIO guide for app modernization to maximize business value and minimize risk.

What are the challenges associated with application rationalization? We see a few:

  • Sheer complexity and sprawl can limit visibility, making it difficult to see where duplication is happening across a vast application portfolio.

  • Zombie applications exist! There are often applications running simply because retirement plans were never fully executed or completed successfully. 

  • Unavailability of up to date application inventory. Are newer applications and cloud services accounted for?

  • Even if you know where all your applications are, and what they do, you may be missing a formal decisioning model or heuristics in place to decide the best approach for a given application.

  • Without proper upfront planning and goal setting, it can be tough to measure ROI and TCO of the whole effort leading to multiple initiatives getting abandoned mid way through the transformation process.

Taking an application inventory

Before we go any further on app rationalization, let’s define application inventory. 

Application inventory is defined as a catalog for all applications that exist in the organization. 

It has all relevant information about the applications such as business capabilities, application owners, workload categories (e.g. business critical, internal etc.), technology stacks, dependencies, MTTR (mean time to recovery), contacts, and more. Having an authoritative application inventory is critical for IT leaders to make informed decisions and rationalize the application portfolio. If you don’t have an inventory of your apps, please don’t despair, start with a discovery process and catalogue all the app inventory and assets and repos in one place. 

The key for successful application rationalization and modernization is approaching it like an engineering problem—crawl, walk, run; iterative process with a feedback loop for continuous improvement. 

Create a blueprint

A key concept in application rationalization/modernization is figuring out the right blueprint for each application. 

  • Retain—Keep the application as is, i.e. host it in the current environment

  • Retire—Decommission the application and compute at source 

  • Rehost—Migrate it similar compute elsewhere

  • Replatform—Upgrade the application and re-install on the target 

  • Refactor—Make changes to the application to move towards cloud native traits

  • Reimagine—Re-architect and rewrite

6 steps to application modernization

The six step process outlined below is a structured, iterative approach to application modernization. Step 1-3 depicts the application rationalization aspects of the modernization journey.

Application modernization process.jpg
Fig. Application modernization process including steps 1-3 for app rationalization

Step 1: Discover—Gather the data

Data is the foundation of the app rationalization process. Gather app inventory data for all your apps in a consistent way across the board. If you have multiple formats of data across lines of businesses, you may need to normalize the data. Typically some form of albeit outdated app inventory can be found in CMDB databases or IT spreadsheets. If you do not have an application inventory in your organization then you need to build one either in an automated way or manually. For automated app discovery there are tools that you can use such as Stratozone, M4A Linux and Windows assessment tools, APM tools such as Splunk, dynatrace, newrelic, and appdynamics and others may also be helpful to get you started. App assessment tools specific to workloads like WebSphere Application Migration Toolkit, Redhat Migration Toolkit for Applications, VMWare cloud suitability analyzer and .NET Portability Analyzer can help paint a picture of technical quality across the infrastructure and application layers. As a bonus, similar rationalization can be done at the data, infrastructure and mainframe tiers too. Watch this space.

Discover—Gather the data.jpg
Fig. Discovery Process

At Google, we think of problems as software first and automate across the board (SRE thinking). If you can build an automated discovery process for your infrastructure, applications and data it helps track and assess the state of the app modernization program systematically over the long run. Instrumenting the app rationalization program with DORA metrics enables organizations to measure engineering efficiency and optimize the velocity of software development by focusing on performance.

Step 2: Create cohorts—Group applications 

Once you have the application inventory, categorize applications based on value and effort. Low effort e.g. stateless applications,microservices or applications with simple dependencies etc. and high business value will give you the first wave candidates to modernize or migrate.

Create cohorts—Group applications.jpg
Fig. Creating and mapping cohorts

Step 3: Map out the modernization journey

For each application, understand its current state to map it to the right destination on its cloud journey. For each application type, we outline the set of possible modernization paths. Watch out for more content in this section in upcoming blogs.

  1. Not cloud ready (Retain, Rehost ,Reimagine)—These are typically monolithic, legacy applications which run on the VM, take a long time to restart, not horizontally scalable. These applications sometimes depend on the host configuration and also require elevated privileges. 

  2. Container ready (Rehost, Refactor and Replatform)—These applications can restart, have readiness and liveliness probes, logs to stdout. These applications can be easily containerized. 

  3. Cloud compatible (Replatform)—In addition to container ready, typically these applications have externalized configurations, secret management, good observability baked in. The apps can also scale horizontally. 

  4. Cloud friendly—These apps are stateless, can be disposed of, have no session affinity, and have metrics that are exposed using an exporter.

  5. Cloud Native—These are API first, easy to integrate cloud authentication and authorization apps. They can scale to zero and run in serverless runtimes. 

The picture below shows where each of this category lands on the modernization journey and a recommended way to start modernization. 

This will drive your cloud migration journey, e.g. lift and shift, move and improve etc.

Map out the modernization journey.jpg
Fig. Application migration/modernization Map

Once you have reached this stage, you have established a migration or change path for your applications. It is useful to think of this transition to cloud as a journey, i.e. an application can go through multiple rounds of migration and modernization or vice-versa as different layers of abstractions become available after every migration of modernization activity. 

Step 4: Plan and Execute

At this stage you have gathered enough data about the first wave of applications. You are ready to put together an execution plan, along with the engineering, DevOps and operations/SRE teams. Google Cloud offers solutions for modernizing applications, one such example for Java is here.

At the end of this phase, you will have the following (not an exhaustive list):

  • An experienced team who can run and maintain the production workloads in cloud 

  • Recipes for app transformation and repeatable CI/CD patterns

  • A security blueprint and data (in transit and at rest) guidelines

  • Application telemetry (logging, metrics, alerts etc.) and monitoring

  • Apps running in the cloud, plus old apps turned off realizing infrastructure and license savings

  • Runbook for day 2 operations

  • Runbook for incident management

Step 5: Assess ROI

ROI calculations include a combination of: 

  • Direct costs: hardware, software, operations, and administration

  • Indirect costs: end-user operations and downtime

It is best to capture the current/as is ROI and projected ROI after the modernization effort. Ideally this is in a dashboard and tracked with metrics that are collected continuously as applications flow across environments to prod and savings are realized. The Google CAMP program puts in place a data-driven assessment and benchmarking, and brings together a tailored set of technical, process, measurement, and cultural practices along with solutions and recommendations to measure and realize the desired savings. 

Step 6: Rinse and Repeat

Capture the feedback from going over the app rationalization steps and repeat for the rest of your applications to modernize your application portfolio. With each subsequent iteration it is critical to measure key results and set goals to create a self propelling, self improving fly wheel of app rationalization. 


App rationalization is not a complicated process. It is a data driven, agile, continuous process that can be implemented and communicated within the organization with the executive support. 

Stay tuned: As a next step, we will be publishing a series of blog posts detailing each step in the application rationalization and modernization journey and how Google Cloud can help.

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